A (11) | B (2) | C (16) | D (9) | E (5) | F (2) | G (7) | H (10) | I (7) | L (1) | M (3) | N (7) | P (19) | Q (2) | R (12) | S (10) | T (1) | V (4)
in vitro

Research conducted in the laboratory with cultured, living cells or purified cellular components, i.e. in a test tube.

in vivo

Research conducted in living organisms (humans or animal models). Also see preclinical research.


The number of new cases of a disease over a period of time (e.g., the annual number of new cases of HIV in a country). Incidence is often expressed as a percentage of a population. (Contrast with prevalence)


investigational new drug

informed consent

An ongoing process of counseling and communication through which potential clinical trial participants learn about the risks and benefits of participating in the trial so that they can decide whether or not to participate voluntarily.


The last stage in the HIV life cycle when viral cDNA, which is created based on viral RNA, enters the host cell nucleus and becomes incorporated into the host cell’s genetic material, permanently “infecting” that cell.

Investigational New Drug Application

An application filed by a sponsor with the FDA requesting approval to conduct clinical trials. The IND includes detailed descriptions of all trial phases, protocols, Institutional Review Board (IRB) members, and investigators.