A product’s ability to achieve a desired effect. In the case of microbicides, efficacy refers to the ability of the product to reduce the risk of becoming infected with HIV and perhaps other pathogens.
A class or type of anti-HIV drugs designed to disrupt the ability of HIV to enter a host cell through the cell's surface.
A disease that has spread rapidly through a segment of the human population in a given geographic area.
The study of the frequency and distribution of disease in human populations.
A necessary component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. These components may include substances to make the product stable over time or resistant to heat and humidity. Excipients also are required to create the physical nature of the product. These could be fillers to make up a solid oral tablet or gel-like substances in the case of some microbicides. The excipient in a drug product is like the chocolate in a chocolate cake. To make the cake itself, there are a number of active ingredients, like flour and eggs, but without the chocolate, the chocolate cake is not a finished product.